Original Research

Theory of Change as a monitoring and evaluation tool aimed at achieving sustainable human settlements

Bongekile Y.C. Mvuyana
Africa’s Public Service Delivery & Performance Review | Vol 11, No 1 | a659 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/apsdpr.v11i1.659 | © 2023 Bongekile Y.C. Mvuyana | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 15 June 2022 | Published: 21 August 2023

About the author(s)

Bongekile Y.C. Mvuyana, Department of Public Administration and Economics, Faculty of Management Sciences, Mangosuthu University of Technology, Durban, South Africa


Background: The major challenge of the South African government has been to implement an effective Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) process that can assist in evaluating the government’s performance and identify factors that contribute to service delivery outcomes.

Aim: The article aims at giving a review of using the Theory of Change (ToC) as an M&E management tool aimed at achieving sustainable human settlements in the eThekwini Municipality.

Setting: The article was guided by the responses from participants’ interviews with officials and provided views on the importance of change in housing delivery and the M&E of sustainable housing development.

Methods: The article adopted a qualitative method and hence both secondary and primary sources were used to examine M&E by integrating the ToC as a tool to achieve Integrated and Sustainable Human Settlements.

Results: The results of the article indicate that the successful implementation of housing projects depend on how the ToC can be an M&E tool aimed at achieving sustainable human settlements.

Conclusion: The article concludes that M&E systems adopted in institutions cannot be regarded as the only approach that can assist in achieving their intended objectives. Managers responsible for the implementation of programmes should be proficient in all key management areas.

Contribution: The article seek to indicate the importance of integrating the ToC in the department’s M&E systems relevant to implementing human settlement programmes aimed at improving the quality of life of citizens.


monitoring and evaluation (M&E); housing delivery; sustainable human settlements; Theory of Change (ToC); integration.


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Crossref Citations

1. Management and leadership considerations for managing effective monitoring and evaluation systems in South African municipalities
Babalo Yekani, Sibongiseni B. Ngcamu, Sareesha Pillay
Journal of Local Government Research and Innovation  vol: 5  year: 2024  
doi: 10.4102/jolgri.v5i0.154